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APA Referencing

PrinTerrific "APA Referencing Quick Guide"

In-text citations and bibliographic references must be provided for all ideas, facts, and workds that you have discovered in your sources (e.g., articles, books, websites, etc.).

What does APA require?

APA style referencing has two basic components:

  1. The in-text or parenthetical citation appear in the text of your paper immediately before or after the information you have used from a source.
  2. The full bibliographic reference is provided at the end of your paper in the References list.
    • The first line of each entry in the References starts at the beginning of the line. Each following line of the entry uses a hanging indent.

View examples below:

The In-Text Citation

There are two simple parts of the in-text or parenthetical citation - the author's last name and the year that the source was published:

If you are using information from one particular page, include the page number as well.
The most significant difference is age (El Sabbah, 2009, p. 442).

According to El Sabbah (2009), there are several differences …(p. 442).

Two Authors

If there are two authors, always cite both names.
Darwish and Farhat (2007) also discovered …

Three to Five Authors

If you are naming the authors in your text or in parentheses and there are three, four or five authors, name all authors the first time you cite the source. In subsequent citations, use et al after the first name.
First citation: Janin, Khaled, and Nesrallah (2006) claim …
Subsequent citations: Furthermore, Janin et al. (2006) have found …

Six or More Authors

If you are citing a source with six or more authors, use "et al." after the first name.
(Samadi et al., 2008)

Group as Author

If the source you are using is written by a group (such as an association, a board, a company, etc.), use the name of the group as the author. If the abbreviation is well-known, write it out in full the first time followed by the abbreviation in square brackets for the abbreviation. Then, in subsequent citations, use only the abbreviation:
First citation: (College & Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta [CARNA], 2009)
Subsequent citations: (CARNA, 2009)

Web, No Author

When there is no author, use the title of the work in the place of the author. Shorten it to a few words if it is very long.
(Morning sickness, 2009)

Class Notes

If you want to use class notes, always start by trying to find the information in an academic source, such as a journal or book. If you cannot, use your professor’s name and the date of the class.
(Varken, September 18, 2011)

Personal Communication

If you are citing a personal interview, an email exchange, or another form of communication between you and another person, use the following in your citation. Do not put personal communications in your references list.
(R. Plant, personal communication, October 23, 2011)

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Integrating Sources

PrinTerrific "Integrating Sources"

Different patterns for integrating sources

Introducing and citing source material using APA style

Sources do not speak for themselves; they must be introduced and placed into a new context. This new context is your paper, your ideas, your argument. In scholarly writing, these introductions are called "signal phrases" and the language we use to introduce our sources is called "reporting." This webpage will show you the language and the grammar for introducing and reporting your sources.

There are two methods for citing sources in your text:

In-text (included in the narrative):

McAdams (1993) points out that in some instances, stories have the power to heal, to "mend what is broken ...and even move us toward psychological fulfillment and maturity" (p.31).*

The in-text citation is useful in setting apart various sources from your own ideas because it clearly indicates the beginning and end of source text. Also, when an in-text citation is used in a paragraph that uses only that one source, you do not need to include the year in subsequent not-parenthetical citations within that paragraph.

Parenthetical citation (no initial introduction to author / source material + citation):

Stories embody our history, beliefs, and identity (Brody & Punak, 2002; Livo, 2001; McAdams,1993).*

The parenthetical citation method (at the end of sentence) is useful for handling general information that is not the core of your arguement or for information that has been widely cited. Note that there are three sources in this one citation, which indicates the text is summarized material.

Source for example sentences:
* Restrepo, E., & Davis, L. (2003). Storytelling: Both art and therapeutic practice. International Journal for Human Caring, 7(1), 43-48.

Pattern 1:


Subject (YYYY) + reporting verb + object . . . .

Examples:

Luthy, Peterson, Lassetter, and Callister (2009) presented best practices for writing across the curriculum (WAC), writing in the disciplines (WID), and writing to learn (WTL). They described several preciously develped strategies used to improve advance writing at the baccalaureate level of nursing education.*

Banks-Wallace (1998) has identified six functions of storytelling.**

List of Pattern 1 verbs:
The reporting verbs in this list can all be followed by a direct object.

add, advise, advocate, analyze, appraise, assess, assume, characterize, clarify, confirm, consider, contradict, critique, demonstrate, describe, determine, discount, discover, discuss, disregard, doubt, emphasize, evaluate, examine, explain, explore, express, highlight, identify, ignore, illustrate, interpret, investigate, justify, list, observe, oppose, outline, present, propose, question, refute, reiterate, reject, represent, reveal, scrutinize, show, stress, study, support, underscore, urge, use, validate, view, verify

Sources for example sentences:
*Gazza, E. A., & Hunker, D. F. (2012). Facilitating scholarly writer development: he writing scaffold. Nursing Forum, 47(4), 278-285.
** Restrepo, E., & Davis, L. (2003). Storytelling: Both art and therapeutic practice. International Journal for Human Caring, 7(1), 43-48.

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Pattern 2:


Subject (YYYY) + reporting verb + that +subject + verb . . . .

Examples:

Cowles et al. (2001) asserted that writing to learn activities enhance the development of critical thinking skills in nuring students.*

Fraser and Gallop (1993) suggested that patients with BPD are seen as healthier than others, so when they display challenging behaviours, nurses become less empathetic and withdraw.**

List of Pattern 2 verbs:
The reporting verbs in this list can all be followed by a noun-clause beginning with "that."

acknowledge, add, advise, agree, announce, argue, assert, assume, believe, caution, claim, clarify, comment, conceded, conclude, confirm, contend, demonstrate, determine, doubt, esitmate, explain, find, hypothesize, imply indicate, infer, insist, justify, maintain, note, observe, point out, posit, propose, realize, recognize, recommend, remark, report, restate, reveal, show, speculate, state, stress, suggest, theorize, understand, urge, write

Sources for example sentences:
*Gazza, E. A., & Hunker, D. F. (2012). Facilitating scholarly writer development: he writing scaffold. Nursing Forum, 47(4), 278-285.
**Weight, E. J. & Kendal, S. (2013). Staff attitudes towards inpatients with borderline personality disorders, 17(3), 34-38.

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Pattern 3:


Signal phrase (with citation), + paraphrased or quoted text

In this pattern, the in-text citation is placed in a signal phrase that comes before the paraphrased or quoted text. The source text must be an independent clause with a subject and verb.

Examples:

According to __________________ (YYYY), + paraphased or quoted text.

a) According to Watson (1985), nursing is oriented towards humanistic values that are demonstrated through the art of caring.*

As ___________ (YYYY), + reporting verb, + paraphased or quoted text.

b) As Watson (1985) has noted, nursing is oriented towards humanistic values that are demonstrated through the art of caring.*

Source for example sentences:
*Gazza, E. A., & Hunker, D. F. (2012). Facilitating scholarly writer development: he writing scaffold. Nursing Forum, 47(4), 278-285.

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Pattern 4:


Independent clause (subject + verb) + colon (:) + paraphrased or quoted text

Examples:

Vezeau (1994) warns against generalizing the story: "it is solely exploration and never prescribes" (p.168).*

Source for example sentence:
*Gazza, E. A., & Hunker, D. F. (2012). Facilitating scholarly writer development: he writing scaffold. Nursing Forum, 47(4), 278-285.

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Verbs: Tense and Number

The rules of subject/verb agreement apply to reporting verbs.

Simple present:
Vereau (1994) warns against . . .*
don't forget to add an "s" or "es" to the verb when the subject is 2nd person singular (he, she, it).

Present perfect:
Banks-Wallace (1998) has identified . . .*
the helper verb "have" must agree with the subject, so 2nd person singular (he, she, it) uses "has" while "I" and plural subjects use "have."

When referring to other sources in scholarly writing, writers should maintain consistency in verb form as follows:

Literature review:
Simple past (e.g., "they described")
Present prefect (e.g., "has identified")

Describing results:
Simple past (e.g., "anxiety decreased")

Discussing implications of results and reporting conclusions:
Simple present (e.g., "communication skills are")

Source for example sentences:
* Restrepo, E., & Davis, L. (2003). Storytelling: Both art and therapeutic practice. International Journal for Human Caring, 7(1), 43-48.

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The Bibliographical Reference

There are several elements required for each bibliographic reference.

Author(s) and editor(s)

  • Always give the author’s last name first, followed by a comma, then the initials for the first name. End with a period.
    • Al Said, D.
    • Dadresan, H., Lopez, M. & McGregor, I.
  • When the author is a group (association, board, government agency, study group, corporation, etc.), spell out the entire name in full. Use capital and lower-case letters. End with a period.
    • Supreme Council for Health.
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • When citing an edited book, use the editor’s name in the place of the author and then add (Ed.). End with a period.
    • Chalthoum, F. (Ed.).
    • Abdullah, K. & Fatemeh, S. (Eds.)
  • When citing only one chapter from an edited book, note both the chapter author’s name (in the above format – last name first) and the editor’s name (with the first name first). End with a period.
    • F. Chalthoum (Ed.).

(Publication Date)

  • Identify the year in which the work was published, and put it in parentheses. End with a period.
    • (2009).
  • For magazines, newsletters and newspapers, give the month, and, if possible, the day.
    • (2009, May/June).
    • (2009, April 23).
    • If no date is available, write (n.d.).

Title. Title.

  • For articles or chapter titles, only capitalize the first word in the title and subtitle, and any proper nouns. End with a period.
    • The imam as doctor: The traditional relationship between religion and healing in Islam.
  • For the title of a periodical (newspaper, journal or magazine), use capitalization and italics. Include the volume number (do not write Vol.) in italics, and the issue number between parentheses in regular type. Also give the page numbers of the article you are using in regular type (not italics). End with a period.
    • International Journal of Nursing Studies, 76 (9), 449-468.
  • For the title of a book or report, use italics. Capitalize only the first word of titles and subtitles, and any proper nouns. Include the volume number if there is one. End with a period.
    • Report on nursing in Canada.
    • World history of nursing: Vol. 12 The Middle East.

Publication Information

  • For periodicals, do not include the publisher name and location.
  • For books and reports, identify the place of publication (City, Country or U.S. City, U.S. State) and the publisher, with a colon between. End with a period.
    • Doha: Bloomsbury Qatar Foundation Publishing.
  • When the publisher name includes the place, you do not have to identify the place.
    • University of Calgary Press.

Electronic Sources URL

  • For sources that you retrieve from the Internet, include the URL.
    • http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2008/cr08321.pdf
    • http://www.gulf-times.com
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The Bibliographic Reference: Books and Reports

Printable Location List

Book with one author.(APA, p. 203, #18)

Author, A. (year). Title of book (# ed.). City, Country/US State: Publishing Company.

Wilkinson, R. G. (1996). Unhealthy societies: The afflictions of inequality. New York, NY: Routledge.

For more explanation, go to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QkFyDiSgSBM

Book with two authors (APA, p. 203, #18)

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of book (# ed.). City, Country/US State: Publishing Company.

Dange, S. & Ahmed, M. (2009). Surgery and recovery. London, England: British Medical Press.

**If a book has between two and seven authors, follow the same format as for two authors: Author, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, D., Author, E., Author, F., & Author, G. (year).

**If a book has more than seven authors, follow the format given below (APA, p. 198, #2): Author, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, D., Author, E., Author, F.,...Author, Z. (year).
**Author, Z. is the name of the final or last author given for the book.

Chapter in a book. (APA, p. 204, #25)

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.),Title of book(# ed., pp. # - #). City, Country/US State: Publishing Company.

Treat-Jacobson, D., Mark, D. L., & Bronas, U. (2006). Exercise. In M. Snyder & R. Lindquist (Eds.), Complementary/alternative therapies in nursing (5th ed., pp. 295-312). New York, NY: Springer.

For more explanation, go to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ppHwNChDVbE

Electronic book (APA, p. 203, #20)

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (year). Title of book. doi: ######

Author, A., Author, B., & Author. C. (year). Title of book. Retrieved from URL

Penninghame House. (2012). Reversing diabetes naturally. Retrieved from http://www. penninghame.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/How-to-reverse-diabetes-eBook.pdf

For more explanation, go to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGHquh2V6fk

Reference

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

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The Bibliographic Reference: Qur'an

(APA, p. 178, 6.18)

When citing a major religious text, such as the Qur’an or the Bible, the APA manual says that an entry in the list of references is not needed; only a citation in the body of the text is needed.

For a citation in the body of the text, the author needs to know the number of the chapter or surah and the number of the verse or ayat.

Examples

Allah is merficul (Qur’an 1:3) .

Moses is mentioned in both the Qur’an (10:15) and the Bible (Exodus 2:15 King James Version).

References

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

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The Bibliographical Reference: Articles in a Periodical

Author(s). >> (Publication date). >> Title of article. >> Title of Periodical, volume (issue), >> page numbers.

Journal article*

Hotte, G. & Damme, A. (2009). Chiropractic intervention and the recovery times of patients with spinal injuries. Journal of Complementary Health, 24(9), 125-132.

*Special Note

For most UCQ undergraduate students, this format will be accepted for articles found in an online database. If your instructor has more specific requirements, especially concerning the DOI, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition or come to UCQ Learning Commons Writing Support.

Journal article found online (not in database)

Author(s). >> (Publication date). >> Title of article. >> Title of Periodical, volume (issue), >> page numbers. >> Retrieved from URL

Calabretto, J.P. & Swatman, P. (2008). Designing digital documents to support medication management. Electronic Journal of Health Informatics, 3(1), 12-17. Retrieved from http://www.ejhi.net/ojs/index.php

Newspaper article

Author(s). >> (Publication date). >> Title of article. >> Title of Newspaper, >> page number(s).

Elshamy, A. (2009, October 11). Premarital medical checks to start soon. Gulf Times, p. A2.

Newspaper article found online

Author(s). >> (Publication date). >> Title of article. >> Title of Newspaper >> Retrieved from URL

Picard, A. (2009, October 9). Helping the survivors heal. Globe and Mail. Retrieved from www.theglobeandmail.com

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The Bibliographic Reference: Webpages

Webpage (APA, p. 214, 7.11)

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year or date). Title of document [Format or description of document]. Retrieved from URL

Example 1

Canadian Nurses Association. (2016). CNA certification program [Application form]. Retrieved from http://nurseone.ca/en/certification

**The author of a webpage might be a person or an organization.

Example 2

If there is no personal or organization as author, use the title of the document as the author.

Morning sickness: Causes, concerns, treatments. (2013). Retrieved from http:// www.babycenter.com/0_morning-sickness-causes-concerns-treatments_ 254.bc

**The format or description of the document needs to be given in square brackets only if the title or URL do not make the document type clear.

For more explanation, go to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r05nWrbLDP8

PowerPoint Presentation from D2L

To reference a PowerPoint presentation from D2L, follow the same format as a webpage.

Example

Varken, K. (2009, December 1). Nursing and parenting [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.d2l. ucalgary.ca/students/blackboard

Blog Post (APA, p. 215, #76)

Author, A. A. (year, month date). Title of blog post [Web log post]. Retrieved from URL

Example

Quan, K. (2009, October 9). Patient confidentiality [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.thenursingsiteblog.com/

Blog Comment (APA, p. 215, #76)

Author, A. A. (year, month date). Title of blog post [Web log comment]. Retrieved from URL

Example

Fortane, V. (2016, April 25). Time management skills ebook from Kathy Quan [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://www.thenursingsiteblog.com/2016/04/time-management-skills-ebook-from-kathy.html#gpluscomments

For more explanation, go to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ht1TygNzV1c

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The Bibliographic Reference: Encyclopedias and Other

Encyclopedia

Author(s). >> (Publication date). >> Title of entry. >> In Editor(s)(Ed.), Title of Encylopedia >> page number(s). >> Publication Information

Browning, P.E. (2002). AIDS Counseling. In K. Krapp (Ed.), The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health (pp. 65-67). Detroit, MI: Gale.

Online encyclopedia or dictionary with no author

Title of entry. >> (Publication date). >> Title of encyclopedia or dictionary. >> Retrieved from URL

Chickenpox. (2011). In A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001592.htm

Class notes

Varken, K. (2009, December 1). Nursing and parenting [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from University of Calgary Desire to Learn site: www.d2l.ucalgary.ca/students/blackboard

Video

Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. (Producer). (2005). Lippincott’s maternity nursing video series: Volume 1 prenatal care [DVD]. Available from http://www.lww.com

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