PrinTerrific "APA Referencing Quick Guide"
In-text citations and bibliographic references must be provided for all ideas, facts, and workds that you have discovered in your sources (e.g., articles, books, websites, etc.).
APA style referencing has two basic components:
View examples below:
The In-Text Citation
There are two simple parts of the in-text or parenthetical citation - the author's last name and the year that the source was published:
If you are using information from one particular page, include the page number as well.
The most significant difference is age (El Sabbah, 2009, p. 442).
According to El Sabbah (2009), there are several differences …(p. 442).
If there are two authors, always cite both names.
Darwish and Farhat (2007) also discovered …
Three to Five Authors
If you are naming the authors in your text or in parentheses and there are three, four or five authors, name all authors the first time you cite the source. In subsequent citations, use et al after the first name.
First citation: Janin, Khaled, and Nesrallah (2006) claim …
Subsequent citations: Furthermore, Janin et al. (2006) have found …
Six or More Authors
If you are citing a source with six or more authors, use "et al." after the first name.
(Samadi et al., 2008)
Group as Author
If the source you are using is written by a group (such as an association, a board, a company, etc.), use the name of the group as the author. If the abbreviation is well-known, write it out in full the first time followed by the abbreviation in square brackets for the abbreviation. Then, in subsequent citations, use only the abbreviation:
First citation: (College & Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta [CARNA], 2009)
Subsequent citations: (CARNA, 2009)
Web, No Author
When there is no author, use the title of the work in the place of the author. Shorten it to a few words if it is very long.
(Morning sickness, 2009)
If you want to use class notes, always start by trying to find the information in an academic source, such as a journal or book. If you cannot, use your professor’s name and the date of the class.
(Varken, September 18, 2011)
If you are citing a personal interview, an email exchange, or another form of communication between you and another person, use the following in your citation. Do not put personal communications in your references list.
(R. Plant, personal communication, October 23, 2011)
PrinTerrific "Integrating Sources"
Sources do not speak for themselves; they must be introduced and placed into a new context. This new context is your paper, your ideas, your argument. In scholarly writing, these introductions are called "signal phrases" and the language we use to introduce our sources is called "reporting." This webpage will show you the language and the grammar for introducing and reporting your sources.
There are two methods for citing sources in your text:
McAdams (1993) points out that in some instances, stories have the power to heal, to "mend what is broken ...and even move us toward psychological fulfillment and maturity" (p.31).*
The in-text citation is useful in setting apart various sources from your own ideas because it clearly indicates the beginning and end of source text. Also, when an in-text citation is used in a paragraph that uses only that one source, you do not need to include the year in subsequent not-parenthetical citations within that paragraph.
Stories embody our history, beliefs, and identity (Brody & Punak, 2002; Livo, 2001; McAdams,1993).*
The parenthetical citation method (at the end of sentence) is useful for handling general information that is not the core of your arguement or for information that has been widely cited. Note that there are three sources in this one citation, which indicates the text is summarized material.
Source for example sentences: